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India ranks first among world’s mango producing countries accounting for about 50% of the world’s mango production. Other major mango producing countries include China, Thailand, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, Indonesia, Brazil, Nigeria and Egypt. India’s share is around 52% of world production i.e. 12 million tonnes as against world’s production of 23 million tonnes (2002-03). An increasing trend has been observed in world mango production averaging 22 million metric tonnes per year. Worldwide production is mostly concentrated in Asia, accounting for 75% followed by South and Northern America with about 10% share.
Economic Importance of Mango
The fruit is very popular with the masses due to its wide range of adaptability, high nutritive value, richness in variety, delicious taste and excellent flavour. It is a rich source of vitamin A and C. The fruit is consumed raw or ripe. Good mango varieties contain 20% of total soluble sugars. The acid content of ripe desert fruit varies from 0.2 to 0.5 % and protein content is about 1 %.
Raw fruits of local varieties of mango trees are used for preparing various traditional products like raw slices in brine, amchur, pickle, murabba, chutney, panhe (sharabat) etc. Presently, the raw fruit of local varieties of mango are used for preparing pickle and raw slices in brine on commercial scale while fruits of Alphonso variety are used for squash in coastal western zone.
The wood is used as timber, and dried twigs are used for religious purposes. The mango kernel also contains about 8-10% good quality fat which can be used for saponification. Its starch is used in confectionery industry like soap.
The crop is suspect to diseases like powdery mildew, anthracnose, die back, blight, red rust, sooty mould, etc. In order to control these diseases spraying of appropriate chemicals/fungicides have to be undertaken preferably on preventive basis. Disorders can also affect the crop if proper case and control measures are not taken. The major among these are malformation, biennial bearing, fruit drop, black tip, clustering etc. The grower needs to seek advice and professional assistance to prevent/control diseases and disorders in the crop.
Time of Planting
- Mango planting is done during rainy season (July to August) and spring season (February to March) in North India.
- The spring season is short and followed by a hot dry period of low humidity and hence high percentage of mortality of young plants is observed in the field.
- In South India the main season is from July to December.
- The planting is done in evening when the high humidity prevails in the atmosphere, while planting, one should be careful that the earth ball does not break during pressing the soil and the graft union remains well above the ground level.
- The plants should be irrigated just after planting.
- During first week of planting one should rectify the defects like sinking of soil and leveling of plants etc.
Tips for farmers:
- The planting should be protected against low temperature injury by (a) Covering plants with some sort of cover, leaving the eastern side open for entrance of light. (b) Building up slow fire, which emits smoke. (c) Applying flood irrigation may also be essential to ward off the ill effects of frost.
- The planting should be on S-W direction. i.e. The scion part of the graft union should be face the S-W direction. So the joint of the graft is protected from the jerk of the wind during high wind velocity.
- The wind breaks or shelter belts should also be prepared mostly in S-W direction which gives protection against hot & salty wind in arid, semi aid and coastal belts.
- Give support to the plant by wooden stick, if required.
- Use natural mulching for retaining the moisture in the soil.
- Take care to remove the new shoots on root stock below the graft union regularly.
- Check the growth of root stock above graft union, after complete establishment of the graft.
- Plant protection measures particularly against sucking pest and termite.
- Spray blue copper or carbendezim (Bavistin) @ 20-25 g per 10 liters of water against fungal diseases of plants.
- Spray Endosulphan or clorpyriphos or Imdiachlopride or any other pesticides effective against sucking pests during new vegetative flush in grafts.
Health & Nutrition Benefits of Eating Mangoes
Mango also has medicinal uses. The ripe fruit has fattening, diuretic and laxative properties. It helps to increase digestive capacity. One of the most delicious and most fattening fruits, mango is truly called the ‘King of Fruits’. A tropical fruit, it comes in as many as 1000 different varieties, each of them totally delectable. Mango, being high in calories and carbohydrates, is good for those who are trying to gain weight. The phenolic compound found in mangoes has been found to have powerful antioxidant and anticancer properties. Being high in iron, mango is said to be very good for pregnant women as well as for people suffering from anemia. Mango is believed to be effective in relieving clogged pores of the skin. The vitamin A (beta-carotene), vitamin E and selenium present in mangoes provide protection against heart disease. Mangoes have been found to be quite helpful in treating acidity and poor digestion. It is being said that the Vitamin E present in mango helps hormonal system function more efficiently and thus, boosts sex life. The anti-inflammatory properties of mango might help alleviate asthma symptoms.
Being the king of all fruit mango has its demand all around the globe. India ranks first in production of bananas (28%) papayas, mangoes (39%) lemons and limes. During 2010-11, India exported fruits and vegetables worth Rs.3856 crores where fruits were worth Rs.2635. Last year, Indian mangoes were sold at around $20 per 3.5 kg, but this year already the price has touched $28 for the same quantity. Till now more than 70 tonne of the juicy Kesar and Alphonso varieties have been exported this year at good prices. In 2009, India exported almost 250 tonne of mangoes, whereas the country has the potential to export almost 500 tonne of mangoes annually. Overall the mango is a profitable fruit for Indian market.
Mango . Gurgaon : National Horticulture Board (NHB). DOI: http://nhb.gov.in/report_files/mango/MANGO.htm
Fresh fruits & vegetables. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority. Retrieved from http://www.apeda.gov.in/apedawebsite/six_head_product/FFV.htm